Artificial Intelligence and its Applications

AIAI or artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning, reasoning and self-correction. Some of the applications of AI include expert systems, speech recognition and machine vision. Artificial Intelligence is advancing dramatically. It is already transforming our world socially, economically and politically.

AI was coined by John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, in 1956 at The Dartmouth Conference where the discipline was born. Today, it is an umbrella term that encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics. AI can perform tasks such as identifying patterns in the data more efficiently than humans, enabling businesses to gain more insight out of their data. With the help from AI, massive amounts of data can be analyzed to map poverty and climate change, automate agricultural practices and irrigation, individualize healthcare and learning, predict consumption patterns, streamline energy-usage and waste-management.

Types of Artificial Intelligence:

Artificial Intelligence can be classified in several ways. The first classifies the AI as either weak AI or strong AI. Weak AI also known as narrow AI, is an AI system that is designed and trained for a specific type of task. Strong AI, also known as artificial general intelligence, is an AI system with generalized human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, it has enough intelligence to find a solution. The Turing Test, developed by mathematician Alan Turing in 1950, is a method used to determine if a computer can think like a human, although the method is controversial. The second example is from Arend Hintze, an assistant professor of integrative biology and computer science and engineering at Michigan State University. He categorized AI into four types, and these were as follow:

  • Type 1: Reactive Machines. An example is Deep Blue, an IBM chess program that can identify pieces on the chess board and can make predictions accordingly. But the major fault with this is that it has no memory and cannot use past experiences to inform future ones. It also analyzes possible moves of its own and its opponents. Deep Blue and AlphaGO were designed for narrow purposes and cannot easily be applied to any other situation.
  • Type2: Limited Memory. These AI systems can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Most of the decision-making functions in the autonomous vehicles have been designed in this way.
  • Type 3: Theory of mind: This is a psychology term, which refers to the understanding that the other have in their own beliefs and intentions that impact the decisions they make. At present this kind of artificial intelligence does not exist.
  • Type4: Self-awareness. In this category, AI systems have a sense of self, have consciousness. Machines with self-awareness understand their current state and can use the information to infer what others are feeling. This type of AI does not yet exist.

 Artificial Intelligence Technologies:

The market for artificial intelligence technologies is flourishing. Artificial Intelligence involves a variety of technologies and tools, some of the recent technologies are as follows:

  • Natural Language Generation: it’s a tool that produces text from the computer data. Currently used in customer service, report generation, and summarizing business intelligence insights.
  • Speech Recognition: Transcribes and transforms human speech into a format useful for computer applications. Presently used in interactive voice response systems and mobile applications.
  • Virtual Agent: A Virtual Agentis a computer generated, animated, artificial intelligence virtual character (usually with anthropomorphic appearance) that serves as an online customer service representative. It leads an intelligent conversation with users, responds to their questions and performs adequate non-verbal behavior. An example of a typical Virtual Agent is Louise, the Virtual Agent of eBay, created by a French/American developer VirtuOz.
  • Machine Learning: Provides algorithms, APIs (Application Program interface) development and training toolkits, data, as well as computing power to design, train, and deploy models into applications, processes, and other machines. Currently used in a wide range of enterprise applications, mostly `involving prediction or classification.
  • Deep Learning Platforms: A special type of machine learning consisting of artificial neural networks with multiple abstraction layers. Currently used in pattern recognition and classification applications supported by very large data sets.
  • Biometrics: Biometrics uses methods for unique recognition of humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, particularly, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Currently used in market research.
  • Robotic Process Automation: using scripts and other methods to automate human action to support efficient business processes. Currently used where it is inefficient for humans to execute a task.
  • Text Analytics and NLP: Natural language processing (NLP) uses and supports text analytics by facilitating the understanding of sentence structure and meaning, sentiment, and intent through statistical and machine learning methods. Currently used in fraud detection and security, a wide range of automated assistants, and applications for mining unstructured data.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence:

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare: Companies are applying machine learning to make better and faster diagnoses than humans. One of the best-known technologies is IBM’s Watson. It understands natural language and can respond to questions asked of it. The system mines patient data and other available data sources to form a hypothesis, which it then presents with a confidence scoring schema. AI is a study realized to emulate human intelligence into computer technology that could assist both, the doctor and the patients in the following ways:
  • By providing a laboratory for the examination, representation and cataloguing medical information
  • By devising novel tool to support decision making and research
  • By integrating activities in medical, software and cognitive sciences
  • By offering a content rich discipline for the future scientific medical communities.

  1. Artificial Intelligence in business: Robotic process automation is being applied to highly repetitive tasks normally performed by humans. Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM (Customer relationship management) platforms to uncover information on how to better serve customers. Chatbots have already been incorporated into websites and e companies to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies.
  2. AI in education: It automates grading, giving educators more time. It can also assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace.
  3. AI in Autonomous vehicles: Just like humans, self-driving cars need to have sensors to understand the world around them and a brain to collect, processes and choose specific actions based on information gathered. Autonomous vehicles are with advanced tool to gather information, including long range radar, cameras, and LIDAR. Each of the technologies are used in different capacities and each collects different information. This information is useless, unless it is processed and some form of information is taken based on the gathered information. This is where artificial intelligence comes into play and can be compared to human brain. AI has several applications for these vehicles and among them the more immediate ones are as follows:
  • Directing the car to gas station or recharge station when it is running low on fuel.
  • Adjust the trips directions based on known traffic conditions to find the quickest route.
  • Incorporate speech recognition for advanced communication with passengers.
  • Natural language interfaces and virtual assistance technologies.
  1. AI for robotics will allow us to address the challenges in taking care of an aging population and allow much longer independence. It will drastically reduce, may be even bring down traffic accidents and deaths, as well as enable disaster response for dangerous situations for example the nuclear meltdown at the fukushima power plant.
  2. Cyborg Technology: One of the main limitations of being human is simply our own bodies and brains. Researcher Shimon Whiteson thinksthat in the future, we will be able to augment ourselves with computers and enhance many of our own natural abilities. Though many of these possible cyborg enhancements would be added for convenience, others may  serve a more practical purpose. Yoky Matsuka of Nest believes that AI will become useful for people with amputated limbs, as the brain will be able to communicate with a robotic limb to give the patient more control. This kind of cyborg technology would significantly reduce the limitations that amputees deal with daily.

In the future, predictive analytics and artificial intelligence could play an even more fundamental role in content creation and also in the software fields. Open source information and artificial intelligence collection will provide opportunities for global technological parity and the technology of artificial can become the future in all the domains of health, environment, public safety and security.

Sources:

Point, T. (2017, July 23). Artificial Intelligence Overview. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from https://www.tutorialspoint.com/artificial_intelligence/artificial_intelligence_overview.htm

What is AI (Artificial Intelligence)? – Definition from WhatIs.com. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2017, from http://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/AI

Albright, D. (2016, September 26). 10 Examples of Artificial Intelligence You are Using in Daily Life. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from https://beebom.com/examples-of-artificial-intelligence/

 

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